New Thinking, New Approaches
The Go Cycle programme adopts the latest thinking and approaches in the design of the schemes that are reshaping Kingston’s main roads, pathways and thoroughfares.
‘Healthy Streets’ - the standard for modern urban environments
'Healthy Streets' is the central standard set by the London-wide transport strategy adopted by the Mayor of London and Transport for London (TfL). It has been applied across the whole Go Cycle programme to ensure that its schemes deliver the benefits of a healthier, cleaner and more inclusive urban environment, served by an efficient, safe, sustainable transport network.
Putting the wellbeing of the citizen sits at the centre of the standards it sets, where it specifies key indicators - ‘Healthy Streets’ 10 indicators - that are recommended to be built in to the design of a new streets upgrade.
Shared use areas
DEFINITION: ‘Shared space’ is an urban design approach that minimises the segregation between modes of road user. A holistic planning approach applied to designing and maintaining public space, in which the design allows for easy movement for all users without prioritising one over the other. Shared space aims to build a sense of community, and in doing so doesn’t just focus on the interaction between different types of road users, but also on the people living and working in that location.
The Department for Transport (DfT) focuses on 'shared use routes' describing them as being segregated or unsegregated.
- Segregated route - is one where pedestrians and cyclists are separated by a feature such as a white line, a kerb or some other feature.
- Unsegregated route - pedestrians and cyclists mix freely and share the full width of the route.
Within the Go Cycle schemes, cyclists will be separated from pedestrians as far as is practicable. However, there are two main scenarios where shared space may be considered:
- In locations where there is insufficient space to safely provide segregated facilities for all road users' needs - at junctions, narrow road sections and bus stops.
- In locations where the function as a 'place' or 'destination' takes higher priority than function as a 'route' - e.g. in the town centre.
- During detailed design of each scheme, use of shared space use is minimised wherever possible. Where elements of shared space exist, bespoke designs are carried out followed by careful monitoring in conjunction with visually impaired representatives. Design methodologies used are in accordance with DfT and TfL advice.
Shared use areas within the Go Cycle programme have been developed in collaboration with disability and cycling groups, and arbitrated by an independent accessibility consultancy. Any ‘shared use space’ is designed to help reduce potential conflict between cyclists and pedestrians - including use of improved signage, training, enforcement, and in-situ trials.
The applying of shared use areas to the Go Cycle schemes was reviewed by a Council Task and Finish Group in late 2016 - this group was made up of councillors supported by officers, consultants, Kingston Centre for Independent Living, Transport for London, Centre for Accessible Environments and Kingston Cycling Campaign.
- The Task and Finish Group agreed on a number of design and enforcement measures relevant to all shared use areas in Go Cycle schemes across the borough. Approved at the Residents Committee in February 2017, recommendations for various design measures included; provision of contrasting surfacing for cycleways, delineation between footways and shared use spaces, and appropriate signage.
- The Residents Committee approved awareness, training, education and enforcement measures to help ensure cyclists modify their riding behaviour, in particular in shared space areas.
Auditing undertaken during implementation includes;
- 'Accessibility Audits' - by independent consultants have been commissioned for all Go Cycle designs. The audit scope specifies making assessments and recommendations on the needs for visually impaired and disabled road users.
- 'Equality Impact Assessment Audits' - are undertaken to evaluate impact of changes and identify improvements to aid inclusion for the vulnerable (disabled, elderly, children, ethnic minorities), to help them move and cycle more regularly but are intimidated by riding with road traffic.
Shared use national guidance and research
Department for Transport (DfT) - Shared Use Routes for Pedestrians and Cyclists, 2012 - guidance to designers. Local Transport Note 1/12 - 2012 about the planning, design and provision of shared use routes for pedestrians and cyclists. DfT confirms that 'shared use routes' for pedestrians and cyclists are not included or affected by a requested pause to the creation of level surface shared space schemes (in areas of high volume of pedestrian and vehicular movement - Local Transport Note 1/11).
Transport for London - London Cycling Design Standards (LCDS), 2014 - key design document for all TfL funded cycle schemes including Go Cycle. States that where cyclists are catered for in spaces otherwise dedicated to pedestrians, pedestrians continue to have priority. Cyclists have to adjust, observe, and give way to pedestrians.
Sustrans - Handbook for cycle-friendly design, 2014 - guidance for designers of cycle cycle infrastructure. In 2014, Sustrans issued a Technical Note on unsegregated and segregated paths stating, “There are significant advantages with unsegregated paths where the width is shared by all users, particularly on traffic-free routes away from the road. Unsegregated routes maximise usable width and minimise maintenance requirements and sign/line clutter. Effective segregation will benefit all users but requires significant additional width to provide the same level of service.” Sustrans has observed;
- More considerate behaviour is observed on unsegregated routes
- Segregated routes can encourage territorial behaviour
- Narrow segregated routes have higher levels of non-compliance.
Atkins for DfT - Shared Space Operational Review, 2012 - This report focussed on a study of segregated and unsegregated cycle routes in Cambridge, Norwich and other UK cities. Findings suggest that behaviors are more considerate in unsegregated areas and that collisions are no more likely on unsegregated routes than segregated ones.
- Pedestrians are more likely to be injured or killed in collision with a motor vehicle than in collision with a cyclist, even if walking on a verge or footway (pavement).
- Around 98% of serious or fatal pedestrian injuries in urban areas (i.e. where pedestrians are most likely to be) are due to collisions with motor vehicles.
- From 2005-14 (GB), 98.5% of pedestrian fatalities and 95.7% of pedestrian serious injuries that happened in collisions on a footway/verge involved a motor vehicle.
- From 2005-14, no pedestrians in Britain were killed by red light jumping cyclists, while around five a year were killed by red light jumping drivers.
Look and feel of Go Cycle schemes
The construction materials and street furniture used for the Go Cycle schemes are viewable within the Go Cycle materials palette.